It’s been a little over a month since we started looking at various case management sites for our firm. At first we considered only testing Clio because we liked it so much. Then we decided it would be a good idea to test some of the other online options, such as Rocket Matter, MyCase, and Total Attorneys. It was pretty clear to us up front that Total Attorneys wasn’t for us. But now we’ve made a final decision on our practice management software.

You can discuss The Shingle Life in the comments, in the LAB, or on Twitter using the hashtag #shinglelife.

Several members in the LAB are going into very in depth discussions about the practice management software options. Herbert Wilson is spear heading the discussion, and doing a terrific job reviewing each software option. I won’t repeat all of those observations here.

I’ve discovered that case management software, not unlike legal research software, is about personal preference. The competitors mostly boast the same set of features. For instance, after Rocket Matter added document assembly, Clio and MyCase quickly followed suit. Clio and Rocket Matter both have Dropbox support, and now MyCase is rolling the same out shortly.

As a result of these similarities, it was almost impossible to make a final decision based on which features one site offered. There were a few small things that worked in favor or against each site. But in the end, you’ve gotta go with your gut.

After all, the purpose of practice management software is to help your practice run more smoothly. The bells and whistles are nice, but like anyone else, there were only a few features we really needed in the software. I was personally split over Rocket Matter and MyCase. Clio’s more database-like setup did not appeal to me at all. I found it slightly counter-intuitive and tricky to navigate.

In the end, we decided on MyCase. It’s just as easy to use as Rocket Matter, and almost the exact same features. But most importantly, my partner strongly preferred it.

Now we have been using MyCase for over six weeks and really enjoying it. The software has helped us avoid missing deadlines, and made it very easy to keep track of our billables. Over all I’m extremely satisfied with our choice.

Do you use practice management software? Have you found that it’s worth the price?

  • shg

    “Now we have been using MyCase for over six weeks and really enjoying it. The software has helped us avoid missing deadlines, and made it very easy to keep track of our billables.”

    And you couldn’t accomplish this with a pen and yPad? Nice to see you have money to piss away on nonsense, but as long as you really enjoy it.

  • Fitch

    Shg might be right… this whole technology is probably just a fad. I’m holding out on that email nonsense too. Bummer you don’t have any money though Shg. Any thoughts on why that might be?

    • shg

      Aw, geez. How did you figure out that I have no money. You are the smartest person ever! So if I get case management software, will that make me rich and fabulous like you?

      • Fitch

        I’m afraid not shg… You would still need cases to manage. Pen and paper is the way to go when your one client is in jail.

        • Point of information. On his website, this gentleman describes himself as a “salesman, technologist, marketeer, entrepreneur, and lobstah cooking expert.” He does not describe himself as a lawyer.

          • shg

            OMG, Sam. Are you telling me Fitch isn’t a lawyer, but a marketing poseur? I’m shocked. Sadly, what doesn’t shock me is that it’s impossible to tell here. Very sad.

  • Angela Sigman

    I used Clio for almost a year, and although I liked some of the features, it really fell short in the billing area for the needs of my practice. I spent a couple of months trying various practice management software, and finally decided MyCase was the way to go. We’ve been using MyCase for almost a month now and very happy we made the switch. They were also very helpful and patient as we called to ask questions and for assistance in getting data switched from Clio to MyCase.

  • Hi Josh:

    Thanks so much for taking the time to evaluate Rocket Matter. I think the MyCase guys owe your partner a case of wine. ;-)

    Larry Port
    Rocket Matter, LLC

    • Tara

      We also reviewed Clio, Rocket Matter, and MyCase. We chose Rocket Matter. Care to send us a case of wine? ;)

  • Kevin

    I have tried MyCase, Clio and Rocket Matter and found MyCase to be best suited to my practice. MyCase is quite robust and has an interface which is easy to use. Their customer service is good. I do hope that they will add features such as tagging and dropbox ntegration in the near future.
    I find Case Management software to be very useful in running a practice especially in cases in which an Attorney has hundreds of cases to manage. Indeed i am of the view that without technology in the form of case management software and/or project management software, it would be very difficult for a lawyer to significantly increase the size of his/her practice. The biggest problem for the legal profession as a business is that it is not easily scaleable. Technology goes a long way in addressing this issue and like any other business, Attorneys should be prepared to invest in their business in order to achieve higher levels of efficiency and profitability.

  • First off, I just want to say that the entire team at MyCase is extremely thankful for all the kind words. They work tirelessly to provide the ultimate product and the best customer service. It is great to see their efforts paying off. The other of the “Big 4” are all incredible products built by great people and they make for some tough choices when deciding what software to use. We are very glad that you have chosen MyCase and I can promise you we will work very hard to keep your business.

    On another note, I agree with my friend Larry that your partner may require a gift of some sorts. Just tell Larry that I’ll send the gift once I receive my Rocket Matter snuggie. ;)


    Matt Spiegel
    CEO | MyCase

  • Our case managment software:

    – Google Calendar (free) (backed up to the phone and a hard calendar)
    – Yellow pads
    – Billings for Mac (cost $25. Generates neat invoices).
    – Firm Roundtable Meeting (aka Margarita Monday)

    Total Cost: $40 (one software program, a case of yellow pads, a bottle of tequila and a bunch of limes).

    I just don’t see a need for case managment software. Maybe I’m crazy. You can do all that stuff with Google Apps. We’re not trying to manage 20 attorneys.

    If we’re going to piss away money, might as well involve margaritas.

  • Allen Landerman

    About 18 months ago I left my partnership and went solo. I decided that a cloud-based practice management system would work best for my practice. I signed up for the 30 day trial periods for Houdini, Clio, and Rocket Matters. Each of the three seem to be lacking one or two features which would be compatible with the way I practice. When I called tech support to discuss the issues I had with the various software, the response I got was always” its in the works”. The I then learned about Mycase. I was intrigued because it had one of the features that was high on my list, a client portal. During the 30 day period I came across deficiencies that were somewhat irksome, but not deal breakers. When I began discussing these deficiencies with Alex, my case’s vice president of technical support, he was not only receptive, but in a couple of cases was able to get the development team to immediately make the fix. I have been using my case for the last 14 months and can tell you that the technical support provided by Alex and his team are way beyond anything offered by anyone in the industry today. I have had numerous discussions with Alex about the philosophy and implementation of various features that would improve the program and make the practice of law somewhat easier. I can’t recommend this product highly enough.

  • I have been a MyCase user since November 2010. MyCase is the best investment I have made since I left my larger firm and went solo 2 years ago. I love the way I can access files, photos, audio, messages, calendars, billing, etc. anywhere, anytime from my IPad. The online billing feature has been seamless, and my clients pay on time more frequently.

    My clients are constantly expressing how much they appreciate the service that MyCase offers. It cuts down on unneeded phone calls about court dates, fee balances, and discovery viewing. Clients can also upload photos to their file for future evidentiary use.

    The staff at MyCase is unparalleled in the industry. They are always available to take your call and listen to suggestions for additions to the program.

    Craig Greening

  • Dawn

    I also tried several programs. It came down to Clio or MyCase. I went with MyCase and have not had any regrets. As others have pointed out, the customer service and tech support are excellent, and improvements are constantly being made. I absolutely love the client portal! Makes communication that much easier – and the tech saavy clients really appreciate it. :-)

  • Angela Sigman

    A little off topic, but the one thing I haven’t found in any law practice management software is a good tasking system with sub-tasks, or a system to easily keep track of each clients case status. I’m currently using Toodledo which does offer sub-tasks (a must for my firm), but the design of Toodledo (or lack of..) is horrible and it makes it difficult to easily read the tasks and differentiate between them both on their website and when printed out.

    Any other suggestions or programs that you use? I really wish MyCase would incorporate this, I have tried each program listed in the article and none of them help in this area.

    • I agree that task management is a big issue with all of these platforms. I’m constantly moving around when it comes to task management software. I find that as long as I’m using something then I can keep my head above water. Otherwise I forget things. I’m currently using which has a nice Chrome extension and iPhone app. It’s easy to use and works OK. At some point I will probably need to bite the bullet for Remember the Milk, since they are great.

    • Alex

      This has been an issue for me, as well. Our firm adopted the GTD (“Getting Things Done” by David Allen) approach and it has been a huge benefit. I was a Toodledo user, but switched to Nozbe. At least for us, Nozbe was preferable for the way it handles teams — I am one of three attorneys who work together — and I highly recommend every law firm look at it. (By the way, the new kid on the block for good team-based GTD work is Asana. As with every one of these programs, it does not implement GTD exactly as some would have it do, but it is an interesting program that is worth a look. For Mac-based attorneys, Omnifocus is a big favorite and an excellent program.) Rocket Matters touts itself as having embedded GTD principles in its approach. While it certainly offers the best offering of the programs, Rocket Matters does not come close to a GTD approach, much less the replacement I would like to have for Nozbe/Toodledo/Omnifocus/Remember the Milk, etc. Maybe, instead of reinventing the wheel, these programs will develop integration with third party To-Do programs. For now, however, we will keep using Nozbe along with whichever case management program we select.

      • What software are you looking at for case management? I have commented to the folks at Mycase that they should integrate with RTM or something similar.

        This comment does make me think that I should go back and re-read GTD and make my partner read it. It’s a system I used ruthlessly back in my political days, but I’ve fallen off the wagon in my legal career.

        • Alex

          We are looking at the standard three – Clio, MyCase and Rocket Matter. We are also considering holding off to see if the Amicus Cloud offering is as good as the president’s presentation made it look a month or so ago, and may choose to go into a holding pattern, utilizing a case management-lite system, Credenza, until these programs mature a bit. If MyCase or any of the other programs follows your advice and creates a synchronized link with Nozbe (which, again, we found to be the best GTD software for coordinating among our three attorneys), our search would end and we would go with that program. If we take the plunge now, though, we will simply have to continue subscribing to both Nozbe and whatever case management program we select. As they stand now, the task-related features of the case management programs don’t come close to what Nozbe offers us.

          • Alex

            On re-reading my comment, I thought it only fair to the vendors to describe more precisely what I am looking for. The GTD system is organized around some simple key principles. I am not going to note each of them. See Getting Things Done for that. At its core, however, you want to be able to identify tasks and projects. Tasks are single, direct actions. If something needs to be done and it takes more than one task, it is called a project and you lump all of the related tasks under that project. For each project and task, you then associate certain features. In the legal world, you want to be able to associate each task and project with a particular matter. Labels achieve that function in Nozbe; in Rocket Matter, the matter is expressly listed as a field, which is great. Each task will have several other features assigned to it: (a) a description of the task; (b) to whom the task is assigned; (c) the deadline for when the task must be completed; (c) how long the responsible person should spend on the task (very important for assignments to associates); (d) the context of the task — drafting, research, errands, research, phone, etc. (you would use tags in Rocket Matter for this); (e) notes you may wish to attach to a task; and (f) documents you may wish to attach to the task either from your own computers or through Evernote, Dropbox, etc. There should be a feedback system so that, as people complete tasks, you receive notice of that. You should also be able to filter projects and tasks as needed. For example, you may want to see all of the tasks assigned to yourself or a partner. You may want to see all of the tasks (or just all of the ones assigned to you) with a deadline before next Monday. If you are going to be in a place where you can make a lot of calls, you may want to filter your tasks for the list of tasks with a context of “telephone” so you can knock out those calls. If you are going out, similarly you want to filter tasks for the context “errands” so you can do as many of those as possible while you are out. When you look at a project, you should see the complete list of tasks associated with that project, whether assigned to you or others. Completed tasks and projects are not deleted, but stored in case you need to re-look at them. Most critically, you should then be able to use this system to conduct a weekly review with your office or just by yourself. You start the weekly review by looking at hard calendar items in the coming week — deadlines, hearings, etc., — and making sure you have entered and assigned all related projects and tasks. You then look at projects and tasks who have not been completed, but whose deadlines for completion passed. Re-calibrate those for completion. You then look at the tasks and projects with deadlines scheduled for the coming week, review those assignments and make any necessary re-calibrations of those. You then go through everything in your office and get the universe of things to be done entered in the system, organized, and assigned. Omnifocus has a wonderful button you push called “review” that brings together all of the matters you’ve put in your inbox that have not been processed, and all tasks that have missed their deadline. That is a very nice feature. There’s lots more in the details, but, in terms of inputting your data, the key is to have the ability to create projects, not just tasks, and to assign to those tasks and projects the features I noted above. Rocket Matter is a good start. It enables you to list tasks, assign them to a matter; tag them with a context, assign them to a team member; and set a deadline. It does not, however, allow you to create a “project” which is critical, since most things we do require multiple tasks. You don’t just want a long list of tasks; you want them organized and projects are a key part of that. So, adding a “project” feature would be a good first step. Then add the ability to list how much time a task should take, a separate and distinct feature from a deadline, as well as the other features I noted for each task. Then bump up the sophistication of the reporting system for tasks and the filtering system. Or … just synchronize with Nozbe or Omnifocus.

            • Angela

              I’m glad I’m not the only one that feels like this. I’ve also made similar requests/suggestions both with Clio when I was a customer and now with MyCase. All of the case management systems I’ve looked at all lack this key feature as far as linking the tasks back to the client/case and letting you prioritize the tasks or create subtasks. I really hate having to use different systems.

              I think I briefly looked at Nozbe after an extensive search and now I’m trying out TeamworkPm. There would be nothing better (and it only makes sense) for these case management programs for attorneys to include decent task managers as well as a way to easily print out a list with the case status for each case to go over in case status meetings. If there were a system that provided that, I definitely would have gone with it.

              I finally chose MyCase because it offered a billing system that fits the needs of my firm where the others did not, and hope the day where I can also combine my task list with the practice system gets here very soon!

  • Like many Lawyerist readers, I can usually be found lurking about the site, and I rarely leave a comment. This seems unfair, because I’ve gotten a lot of goof ideas from the articles and the comments that I’ve read on Lawyerist blogs. Here goes:

    Databases are someone else’s version of ways to optimally organize information. They are consequently and definitionally unable to please me, especially since, like many of my peers, I am an admitted egocentric, demanding lawyer.

    That said, I think that there ought to be some sort of common ground when it comes to best practices in database design. Neither RM, Clio, nor MyCase meet on such a common basis. In the past 15 days, I’ve tried all three, and I’ve not yet decided which (if any) we will use. I’ve also tried Advologixpm, TimeSolv, and one or two other SaaS platforms. I avoided HoudiniEsq for because its owner’s marketing tactics on this site annoyed me.

    Rocket Matter has a very slick interface. It’s easy to use, and easy to download information into CSV files for editing in Excel. I generally like it, and I eventually made contact with someone in support who was able to help me out.

    I say “eventually”, because the lady with whom I originally spoke eventually just stopped replying to my questions after I pointed out an error in her instructions. Even better, when I telephoned support, I got her on the line, which tells me that “support” is a rotating team of (probably non-technical admin) people, and not a group of dedicated software technicians. Or I was just incredibly lucky to get the person who’d been ignoring me when I called. Sure.

    I was more troubled by technical shortcomings than the initial customer service lapse. One of the trust account summary fields had a summing error that showed my trust balance as being off by $10,000+. I managed to discover this, pointed it out to “helpful-support” person, who admitted it was a known problem in the sofware, and that “engineers were working on it.”

    Guys: if you ever want to stress out a customer-lawyer and compromise his trust in your product, screw up the sum fields for his trust accounting, and then have support admit this is a “known problem.” I can’t admire th nice color scheme on your retro website if I’m disbarred.

    Feeling thus betrayed, I ventured to Clio. I was initially impressed. While the interface wasn’t as slick, Clio has three things that I like: customizable fields that are more than just plaintext (RM is “working on it”), matter-based trust accounting (RM tracks trust balances by client, not matter, which poses some real problems for my practice), and a tight Outlook integration (virtually nonexistent in RM).

    I would love to be able to tell you what Clio is like. I really would. However, their support team, which uses a ticket system, has not yet been able to upload my data to test. They told me five days ago that it would be “at least a week” until they could get around to it.
    I tried to upload my own data on to both platforms, and I discovered that, while both companies use Outlook field CSV templates to imprt data (rather than field mapping, which is actually something most low-end databases (like Outlook) have been doing for 15 years), Clio provide no instruction for its CSV templates and no support feedback. Worse, at least with Clio, the matter template DOESN’T WORK, and the platform seems to have exhausted its budget when it came to documenting their systems with a solid user guide.

    Armed with a growing sense of ominous alarm, I have now opened a trial account with MyCase. I will *try* to upload data today or tomorrow, and see how it works (like RM and Clio, MyCase promises tech support with uploads, but unlike the other two platforms, I could find no readily-apparent way of getting information into the database).

    Want to hear something even more alarming? MYCASE DOESN’T EXPORT YOUR DATA. That’s right: if you want anything other than your contacts out of the system – like if you decide to change and go with a competitor – you have to wait for a DVD in the mail with files in an unknown and unstated format. See An actual DVD. How cutting-edge.

    Guys, I get the whole “host-applications-so-that-you-can-free-up-your-time” pitch. I drank the Kool Aid, and I agree: systems like ProLaw, Amicus, and Time Matters blow. But not offering basic database functionality like pre-formatted telephone number fields? Blowing off your service requests? Holding data hostage? To me, at least, it seems as though you’re simply waiting for enough revenue and spotlight so that you can sell out to Thomson Rueters or Lexis (just like Time Matters, ProLaw, and Elite all did). Maybe this is a smart business model for you, but it’s not so good for your customers, and you’re risking a real backlash when you over-promise and under-deliver, especially with the years of built-up hatred of Lexis and West products that I and my friends have.

    As for me, I made the stupid mistake of jumping into RM from ProLaw by assuming that RM could handle my practice management. I was sick of always paying a “consultant” to get basic practice-metric information out of my database. 21 days into my 30-day money-back guarantee, RM charged me for a second month. Sigh.

    For what it’s worth, I’ve probably been a little harder on RM, because I’ve had more of an opportunity to actually work on their platform. Clio, as I note above, is almost completely non-responsive, and I’m really worried about seeing my practice data stuck on the MyCase environment.

    The initial support experience at Rocket Matter really annoyed me, but the follow-up effort was impressive. If I had to pick a best of show at this juncture, it would be RM, though that is honestly faint praise.

    • Edit: Clio does not have any custom fields, but, according to their sales team, they are “working on it.” The ability to add custom fields seems mostly relegated to the MyCase product, though Rocket Matter does permit plaintext field creation.

    • Hi Ronald,

      I’ll touch base with our migration team and see if I can provide some insight as to where your data migration is at.

      My only comment for the time being would be that one week is a fairly typical timeframe for a data migration for our team – we’re doing dozens of data migrations every week, and each and every migration ends up involving certain customizations. These customizations end up taking a certain amount of back & forth (and therefore time), so it’s difficult to turn around a data migration in the kind of timeframe I think you’re expecting.

      I’ll drop you a line as soon as I have some insight on your data migration, and I hope we’ll be able to make you a happy Clio customer.

      My e-mail is jack (at) goclio (dot) com if you’d like to drop me a line.

      Best regards,

    • Hi Ronald:

      I’m sorry you had such a frustrating experience with us. It grieves me to hear your comments, as the Rocket Matter you write about in your comment doesn’t seem like our company.

      I took a look at the billing issue you mentioned. You were indeed billed 30 days after, not 21 days after as you mention in your comment. I’ll reach out to you privately with details (wanna be a little sensitive about that in a public forum).

      I apologize that we failed you when it comes to customer support. I’m very proud of our support team and they’re considered the best in the business, but in your case it looks like we didn’t service you to your requirements. I will contact you to investigate further and speak with my team, as we’re continually looking to improve.

      Per the trust accounting issue, I’ve yet to hear a complaint like that. I take these things extremely seriously so I will look into it and let you know.

      Larry Port
      Rocket Matter, LLC

  • Dawn

    I didn’t have any trouble importing my data into MyCase, and exported from both Outlook and BestCase (my bankruptcy software) into MyCase without a hitch. Thanks, Ronald, for your in depth review. It is much appreciated! I am looking forward to hearing your review of MyCase. I have been using it for a little while, but it looks to me like you really investigate a product thoroughly and will scrutinize it even more closely than I have!

  • Ronald,

    I totally feel your pain. That is why I am proud to say that we are launching some awesome new export/backup features at the end of this week. People have spoken and we listened. I think your concern about this is completely valid and I think you will find that our solution is very easy and efficient.

    Let me know what you think!


  • LD

    Coming from PCLaw, which has integrated FIRM (not just trust) accounting, it’s hard for me to pick any one of these solutions. I’m (again) giving Clio a try. For what it does, Clio does well.

    PCLaw spoiled me into an all in one solution that knew how to temporarily allocate client expenses and then categorize them for accounting purposes when it was time to prepare for tax time. Additionally, PClaw gives us the ability to know exactly how much is in our operating account in “real time”. None of the web based solutions offer this – Clio has a workaround by allowing us to keep “Transactions” but it doesn’t replace what we’d be missing by leaving PCLaw. Of course, I’m trying to leave PCLaw altogether because we had a DB corruption a few years ago and our accounting never quite recovered.

    There are a handful of web based PMs with trust accounting solutions, but again, trust accounting is NOT firm accounting.

    If only someone could integrate firm accounting into their packages, I’d sign up in a heartbeat. I suppose no one else has this problem. :D

    • yoni

      We have this problem? We too are looking outside of PCLaw, their DB corruption is incredibly troublesome. I can’t migrate our firm into a new product until I get a sense of the limitations with Clio, RM, MyCase etc as compared to PCLaw.

  • I have enjoyed reading some of the GTD stuff that Rocket Matter puts out, but I have enjoyed using Clio. I am a recovering PCLaw user, which I found to be impenetrable. I needed a full time accounting firm to help me figure out what was going on my own practice. With Clio, I feel like I have a lot more control over what’s going on and I have a better understanding of where each case is. The dropbox integration is seamless. I like the flow of information from calendar to time entry to bill, and although the billing is not perfect, my experience is that the customer support people are extremely helpful. In addition, there are a ton of videos on Vimeo that show you how to do things.

    Normally, I’d hide in the weeds, but I read these comments and thought Clio was not getting enough love. I really like Clio. It has reduced my stress level and let me concentrate more on my work.

    Pax vobiscum.

  • I have been shopping all day for a practice management software. I loved this article…Mostly because it reinforced my thought that MyCase would be the best buy. However, I am having some trouble with discarding HoudiniESQ because of the Task Management functions. The on-site version is less expensive than the Cloud version and the other Cloud practice management suites. I would love to hear what you think about Houdini.

    • We think it sucks and the developer is a jerk. Check out the comments on this thread for some impressions and a cameo by the developer.

      • More specifics re: the latest version of the product (not the developer) would help the reader here. BashaSystems white paper on HoudiniEsq from technolawyer gives it a 4 out of 5. I’ve heard Seth speak and use and add-on to TimeMatters that he developed, so I know the background for BashaSystems.

        I was hoping to use lawyerist as a comparison or to gain more up-to-date info on all current pms on market, not crm, but true pms. It’s helped eliminate some of the options that seemed incomplete compared to Houdini and it’s helped me to decide to take a closer look at MyCase.

        Guess I’ll wait for my technolawyer subscription to reactivate

  • Angela Sigman

    I had a trial of pretty much every practice management software out there, including Houdini, but I unfortunately don’t remember why I ruled it out. I felt all of the different companies were lacking in the task list area, and hopefully MyCase will remedy that soon.

  • Hello All,

    Great posts… As I am trying to come up with the best software for my niche of practice. Does anyone do PIP (Personal Injury Protection) law in their respective state? Essentially it is a voluminuous type of practice where doctors (clients) on behalf of their patients sue the insurance carrier for unpaid bills, sort of collections practice if you will, except it is all solved via binding arbitration. I havent found the system that integrates well with that. I also do personal injury and municipal work, so I assume something with that will help. Any thoughts or suggestions?



  • D Bru

    What do you think of My Case? Is it everything you need? I am thinking about trying it and I am very interested.

    • We definitely like it. But I still wish it had some of the features of the other systems. Specifically, I would really like some kind of Dropbox support to easily link matters with folders. A customizable invoice option would also be great. But other than that I’ve really been enjoying the software and have not had many complaints.

  • I’m wondering how the customer service has been for those of you who are My Case customers? I’ve considered and used both My Case and Clio. I found Clio’s customer service to be awesome, but I literally can’t get a return phone call from My Case. Three vm’s left for them in two weeks. Nada. Just wondering if this is unusual or typical for My Case.

    • Dawn Vigue Thurston

      I am surprised to hear that MyCase customer service has been slow to respond. When I reach out to them via email, whether on a weekday, weekend or holiday, they always respond almost immediately. Have you tried either emailing directly or via the contact us page?

  • I’m not a lawyer but a marketing/pr consultant for lawyers (and other professionals). I often recommend software to my clients, Does My Case offer a “client list” for CRM purposes? Does anyone here use any particular software for client relations/ newsletter type purposes? Thanks KA